The concept of the taiji ("supreme ultimate"), in contrast with wuji ("without ultimate"), appears in both Taoist and Confucian Chinese philosophy, where it represents the fusion or mother of yin and yang into a single ultimate, represented by the taijitu symbol. T‘ai-chi ch‘üan theory and practice evolved in agreement with many Chinese philosophical principles, including those of Taoism and Confucianism.
T‘ai-chi ch‘üan training involves five elements, taolu (solo hand and weapons routines/forms), neigong and qigong (breathing, movement and awareness exercises and meditation), tuishou (response drills) and sanshou (self defence techniques). While t‘ai-chi ch‘üan is typified by some for its slow movements, many t‘ai-chi styles (including the three most popular—Yang, Wu and Chen) have secondary forms with faster pace. Some traditional schools of t‘ai-chi teach partner exercises known as tuishou (pushing hands), and martial applications of the postures of different forms (taolu).